There are close to 114 species of mammals in Etosha. When the rainy season begins in the summer months, animals seldom need to visit the drinking places along the tourist routes.
At this time of the year large herds of game can be seen on the grass plains west of Okaukuejo after the rainy season. The animals, however do gradually appear after the rains.
This is also the time when many young animals can be seen, since it is also the lambing and calving season.
After the first rains the elephants leave the tourist area for the northern and southern part of the park.
Of the 340 bird species that have been identified in the game park, approximately a third are migratory.
During the rainy season there are large gathering of water birds and wader at Fischers pan near Namutoni. The beautiful lesser and greater flamingos also assemble here.
Of the 35 raptor species, ten are migratory and come to the Etosha for the summer.
According to estimates, there are 50 snake species in Etosha. Many of them non-poisonous.
Because of the varying soil types in the game park, a large variety of vegitation types occur.
- Etosha pan and smaller pans – The pans form part of the largest single plant community in the park. The soil-type is a whitish clay with a high pH and salt content. But there are some grass species that do grow here.
- Sweet-grass veld on a lime soil – In this area is an important plant community, since it supports the highest concentration of grazers.
- Okondeka dune veld – This area consists of a dune system which runs more or less with the pan. It is not very fertile. Various dwarf shrubs are to be found in places. The area is periodically of importance to grazers.
- Andoni Grasslands – Acts as host to grazers, particularly in the cold, dry season. Few shrubs occur. The soil is shallow, with relatively high salt content.
- Ekuma Grasslands – The sweeter, linger grass veld only periodically visited by small hers of grazers and elephants. This is due to the absence of reliable water sources.
- Karstveld turf pans – The open savanna grass lands are seasonally important when there is water in the area. Vertical clayey soil, which is fertile occurs.
- Poachers Point – This area, next to the pan, is only periodically visited by migrating game.
- Mopane and Combretum – This tree veld is partially important for elephants and other browsers, but generally has a lowyear-round concentration of game. Quite a number of perennial grass species occur.
- Mixed bushveld – This dense and variable tree vels utilized by game even less than the last mentioned area.
- Terminalia and tamboti forest – The impressive tall big-tree veld is taken advantage of by a variety of browsers throughout the year.
- North-eastern sandveld – The deep Kalaharisand soil, and a relatively high rainfall, produce luxurious plant-life, ideal for elephants and other browsers.
- Ekuma tree and shrub-mopane veld – Shallow clay-loam soils are to be found in this area, with a chiefly alternating distribution of tree mopane on a matrix of shrub mopane. This area is seasonally important for semi-permanent and migrating elephant.
- Shrub-mopane veld – this veld is characterized by deeper clay-loam soils. The shrub-mopane veld is dominant in this area.
- Dolomite hills – In the south and west of the game park and also near Halali, rugged, low hills and reefs are found with marked difference in the composition of plant communities from those to be found with in the surrounding veld.